Cadyanda / Kadyanda

18 kilometers northeast of Fethiye, at Uzumlu, is the site of Cadyanda. From Uzumlu, there is a long and steep climb in order to reach this city, from one and a half to three hours on foot. You will not regret that you had made the climb once you reach the top as you will be greeted with a commanding view as well as ruins of a theater, stadium, baths, temple, and agora.

Cadyanda, ‘Kadawanti’ in Lycian, was never more than an obscure city. It is mentioned only once in ancient manuscripts, whereas its monuments and inscription go back to the 5th century B.C.

Perched on its hilltop 400 meters above Uzumlu and about 900 meters above the sea, Cadyanda was certainly in a commanding situation. The ancients Greeks, like the modern Turks, made light of a 300-meter climb at the end of their day’s work. The more comfortable ascent leads round the hil1 from the north side by the east to the south; the more direct path is a very steep but convenient for the descent.

On the way up is a group of four handsome tombs; three of these, of house-type, are cut in large boulders which have fallen at a later stage and are now lying at odd angles. The fourth stands free on all four sides and appears to be cut from the solid rock; the two long sides are decorated with very fine reliefs-on the south side a rnan reclining on a couch, on the north a mounted warrior riding over a faI1en foe and charging down another who carries a shield and a spear raised ineffectually skyward. Sir Charles Fellows dated this tomb to around 400 B.C. and caI1ed it Hector’s Tomb. The artist, George Scharf was brought with him, whereas Scharf had painted a picture of this tomb.

Approaching the site from the south, the visitor comes first upon an immense number of tombs or graves, most of which have been iIlicitly dug in recent times and are consequently destroyed or badly damaged; a few still stand more or less intact. Some consist of a vaulted chamber originally covered with plaster, a type common of Olympus on the east coast, but not characteristic of Lycia as a whole.

A little further up is the city-wall, constructed of wide stone blocks, fairly well preserved in this part, but hardly discernible elsewhere. It stil1 possesses an impressive panoramic view of the Xanthos Valley and the Fethiye Plain.

Just inside it is a small theater in poor condition. Many of its seats survive on the west side, and the semi-circular retaining wall of the cavea stands all round; it is built against the excavated hillside and is visible only from the interior. The stage-building is a more or less unintelligible ruin.

Across the city center, from west to east, runs a long open space some 10 meters wide and over 90 meters long, not unlike the main avenue in Phaselis. Nevertheless, despite its dimensions and its unusual position, there is no doubt that this is a stadium. The city must have possessed a stadium, as the inscriptions mention two athletic festivals celebrated at Cadyanda. Eight statue-bases of athletic victors have been found in or around it, and six rows of seats are partia11y preserved on the north side; along the south side runs a line of blocks. Except at the west end it is much overgrown. The original length is in fact uncertain, as the ends are destroyed, and may have approximated more nearly to the standard length of some 200 meters.

Adjoining the stadium on the south is a building in ashlar masonry of the Roman period divided into three chambers, with three large windows on the south side. The western chamber has an apse at its south end. An inscription lying close by records that the Emperor Vespasian bui1t the baths out of the money recovered by him for the city. We know nothing of course of the circumstances, but it is interesting to have this evidence of the interest taken by the emperor in the affairs even of the rninor cities of his empire. The building in question must evidently be the baths though its form is unusual for a bath of the Roman period. The three chambers are now in a state of ruin, but a small building close to one corner is still standing in fairly good condition.

Across the way on the north side are the ruins of a large structure identified as a Doric temple, with stairs leading up to it from the stadium. However, there is little that can be made out of its present condition.

In the southwest part of the city, lost among the vegetation, is a ruined stoa some 90 meters long; the space adjoining it on the north has been dubiously identified as the agora. The city lays too high from an aqueduct of the normal Roman type, and a supply of water was secured by cistems; many of these are to be seen, and ha1f a dozen of them still contain water during the summer. On the whole, the site is very attractive but covered in overgrowth, and to some extent spoilt by illega1 digging. At the foot of the hill, not far from Uzum1u, are two noteworthy tombs, one is caI1ed Hector and the other is Sa1as, though they are now sadly damaged. One stands near the road from Uzum1u to ancient city is a pillar-tomb of standard type but lacking the grave-chamber at the top.

It has recently been overturned and the upper stone is cracked in two. The other stood about a kilo- meter to the southeast ofUzum1u and was, among the most remarkable tombs in Lycia; it is now damaged a1most beyond recognition. it was free-standing, cut from the rock, and carried reliefs on all four sides.These included warriors, men and woman seated or reclining, and animals. On one side the ma1e figures, but not the fema1e, were identified by their name in Lycian or Greek; only one woman has a name attached, and she is ca11ed merely the ‘wife of Zzala’. The tomb, which was quite possibly that of a Cadyandian princess who came from a Carian Heka – tomnid family, is dated to the late 5th century B.C.

George Scharf drew a sketch of this monument showing the condition it was in at the time. in 1966, some of the pieces of this monument which were shipped off to the British Museum were examined in detail by Borchardt. Subsequent drawings were made.