This river, the ancient name of which was Lycos, passes through the cotton plains and joins the Menderes river delineating the western frontier of this plain.
At the southern confines rises the mountain Babadag. To the southeast we see the mountain Honoz of a height of 2751 m which was called in history “Mount Cadmos”.
Pamukkale where roads coming from Tralles and taking the direction of the Mediterranean sea and Sardes intersected, experienced a number of earthquakes in history which occurred during the reigns of Neron, Antoninus Pius, Alexander the Great and Septimus Severus, which destroyed the city. These disasters of nature may have changed the courses of the streams bringing along carbon dioxide as a potential danger.
For instance the “Djinn hole” under the Temple of Apollo is one of the places where one can observe its existenceof this effect. As a matter of fact the birds flying in fall dead. In history the priests benefited of the clean air available at certain places to penetrate accompanied by animals and came out unaffected with a triumphant air .
Pamukkale, caressed by a breeze at all times is today a centre where people seeking remedy for their ills go.
Even emperors came here for the same purpose. These waters are used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, atherosclerosis, blood pressure anomalies, nervous disorders, skin eruptions, diseases of the eye, rachitism, strokes and disorders of the digestive systems.
According to a legend a maiden whose beauty is far from being laudable and unable to find a suitor makes up her mind to put an end to her days and lets herself fall from the precipice but the waters in the basin takes her in their lap safe and sound.
The miracle happens, the waters touching her rejuvenates and add beauty to her complexion, which fact does not go unnoticed by the son of the prince who is passing by and takes her along to his father and marries her.
This not merely legendary, since the said waters are truly beneficial and have the property of rejuvenating the human skin.
The spring waters of Karahayit are at a distance of 5 km from Pamukkale. This place is watered by three different streams, the carbon dixoide content of which is not so high.
The whiteness of the water of Pamukkale yields their place here to reddish hues. The radioactivity of the waters of Karahayit of 60° C degree is about 2-4 eman.
Amongst the other springs where one can take a mud bath, one can enumerate Buldan Yenice, and Cizmeci at Kavaklibasi at a distance of 4 km from Pamukkale and Tekke at a distance of 20 km from Saraykoy.