The Persians took over Anatolia when they defeated the Lydians. When the Persians attempted to capture Xanthos chose to commit collective suicide with the aim of saving themselves from being taken as prisoner by the Persians. The people of Xanthos also resisted Brutus who attempted to recruit soldiers in Anatolia in 42 BC after having killed Caesar, and they again committed collective suicide when the city was falling.
When we start out to visit this city, surrounded with walls, we see a Hellenistic gate at the left hand side of us and another gate built for the Emperor Vespasianus. The ruins that stand on our right hand side are the remains of the Monument of the Nereids, which belongs to the years of 400 BC and is kept at the British Museum today.
The center of Xanthos consists of the Roman theater. The Roman tower-tomb is located first adjacent to tee theater. The Lycian monumental tomb, 8.59m in height and belonging to the 4th century BC, is in the middle. The other monument adjacent to this one, is the Harpy monument which is 8.87m in height and belongs to the year 480 BC Owing to the fact that the reliefs of the upper part of this monument had been taken to the British Museum, the ones that we see here today, are the copies made of plaster. The wide area adjacent to this monument is the Roman agora of Xanthos. There is a monument in the eastern part of the agora; it is 11m in height and there are inscriptions written in Greek and Lycian script on it. There is a Lycian acropolis behind the theater. And immediately behind the theater, there is a Lycian monumental tomb. The remains of a Byzantine church are at the side of this monument.
The remains of a palace of the Lycian period lie at the center of the acropolis and, a little further, there is a Lycian pool carved in the rocks. The place of recreation of the Lycian King, is located at the extreme end of the acropolis at a point overlooking the lowland. The Roman acropolis is on the hill which is at the east of the theater. There is a Byzantine basilica in the acropolis. Many rock-tombs and their monuments are placed side by side in the southeast of the acropolis. The Lycian monumental tomb belonging to the 4th century BC and located at a point near the city walls is 6.39 m. The remains of the Monument of Payava are seen at a point a little further towards the right-hand side of this; and the monument itself has been carried to the British Museum. Down below, at a point where the city walls form a corner, only the base of the tomb with lions, belonging to the date 540 BC, is seen.