Red pepper grown in Southern Anatolia, Bursa and Kayseri is vivid red colored and bitter with a special aroma. It is sold as dried and crumbled in tiny pieces. Besides adding flavor to the dishes, it is known to be an appetizer, stimulant and good for the arteries. Red pepper is called "isot" in Urfa.
Thyme grows in highlands and has small leaves with strong aroma. Thyme is dried and used plentiful in meat dishes. When the herd grazes in thyme growing pastures, the meat is very delicious. Thyme has tranquilizing, soothing effect on the stomach, is an antiseptic and stimulant of blood circulation and helps pass worms.
Daphne is on evergreen tree which reaches 3-10 meters height. It grows mainly in the Regean and the/Mediterranean Coasts of Turkey. The leaves are 5-10 cm long and 2-3 cm wide and is good for the stomach as an antiseptic. Also, causes perspiration, fresh green leaves are often used to add to the flavor of grilled fish.
Basil is a leafy plant that grows 10-40 cm in height and is white. The leaves are 2-6 cm large, notched and aromatic. The tranqulizer, soother basil is used as herb. Rice is decorated with basil leaves to add aroma.
Black pepper is blockish colored, 4-6 mm puckered seeds that originate in India. It is dried and grounded and used in almost all soups and dishes. When smelled, the burning bitter aroma causes people to sneeze. Consists of evaporating oil, cornstorch and fennel which gives the burning taste. Blackpepper is one of the essential herbs used in a large variety of dishes.
Saffron grows from tubered roots in autumn and has purple colored flowers and is about 20-30 cm high. The saffron inside the petals is reddish orange colored, bitter tasting and has strong aroma. It consists evaporating oil and is a very valuable herb giving color, aroma and taste. Saffron is sold in powder form and is being used in Anatolia since the times of Hitits.
The tubered bulbs are planted in end-flugust/early September period and the flowers that blooms in October are collected twice a day and dried
The evergreen tree of about 5-10 meters tall, grows in mid America and Jamaica. The fruit is collected before it ripens. The aroma reminds the aroma of carnation and it contains fennel, evaporating oil and tannin. It helps cure diarrhea and is an appetizer. While being added to dishes as o herb, it is also used in some drinks.
The plant grows in the Mediterranean countries and is about 50 cm toll. The flowers are white and pink.The seedy yellow petals ore 5-6 cm long. Cumin has o strong aroma. Contains fennel, evaporating oil and rids stomach gasses. Romans have started using cumin as a herb.
Tomato gives dishes, color as well as taste. It is added either as fresh chopped tomatoes or used as paste in cooking. Tomato has originated from South America, spread all over the world. It gives 20 calories and contains protein, carbohydrate, calcium phosphate, iron, fat, vitamins 6 and K. However, solanine In tomato is poisonous and causes headache if it is eaten unripe. Tomatoes are grown in gardens and green houses. There are 200 different kinds of tomatoes around the world. Over-ripened tomatoes in the fields are used in making paste.
Parsley is a well known plant in the Mediterranean Region added into dishes or used to decorate the plate. It was considered to have a magic spell by the ancient Romans. This plant, widely grown and used in Turkey, can grow up to 50 cm tall. It is cut and sold in bunches with stems. The large leafed ones ore preferred.
First originated in Europe, dillweed grows to be 6 -130 cm toll. The wild kind is abundant in turkey. It is grown as the parsley and is used in
soups and dishes such as fresh broad beans, pea and squash dishes and fish. Dillweed is sold in bunches with stems.
People mere familiar with onion since ancient history. It is believed to have originated from the Western Asia. The inner layers of the thin yellow skinned onion is white. The red onion is used with fish dishes. The tall fresh green onion is pulled out of the earth, before the bulb has grown, and is used with salads and fish. Besides adding taste to food, onion has carbohydrate, organic asids and vitamins. Onion has burning effect and causes tears when peeling. It is known for its anti-bacterial, kidney-stimulator, muscle toner, blood-sugar balancer qualities since ages. Heredotes states in his book that during the construction of Keops pyramide in Egypt, the workers were fed on onions, garlic and radish to avoid probable epidemics. 100 gr. Of onion added to soup or any dish has 8.1 gr water, 1.4 gr protein,8.9 gr carbohydrate, 0.8 gr cellulose and 0.2 gr.oil. The calori of onion is 46 and contains Vitamins A, B, B2 and C.
Garlic, used to enrich the flavor of many dishes such as the tripe soup, is one of the oldest flavors known by ancient men. It is white or pinkish colored and grows 25 - 100 cm. tall. The cloves are covered by thin layers of crusty membrane. These cloves
are peeled and used either mashed or sliced or as a whole. Garlic has a very strong smell and burning flavor.It contains carbohydrate, A, B and C vitamins and evaporating oil with sulphur which completes the taste of garlic. In olden times it has been used as a preventing measure against spread of epidemics, fluthorities agree that garlic helps in curing high blood pressure, glucose, cleaning of kidneys as well os arousing appetite. The following mythological story teels us the benefits of garlic.
Asclepios is the God of Health. He cures his patients, working miracles even bringing dead, back to life. That infuriates the God of Gods and hits Asclepios with lightnings. While falling to the ground, he wants to give a last service to mankind, scribbles a recipe that he leaves behind. The God of Gods sees that Asclepios is writing something, before dying, he starts to send down pouring rain. The recipe dissolves in the earth. Zeus, the God of Gods is calmed down.
He sends the clouds away and the bright sun warms the earth. Suddenly, a plant erupts at the point where the recipe was buried. This plant is garlic, Actually, garlic is a remedy for almost all kinds of sicknesses. It can be eaten fresh but the smell is too strong and repelling.
Olive oil is better than all animal products and is abundantly produced in Western Turkey and Greece. Long living olive trees are sensitive to cold weather. Olive is known and used since the times of Mesopotamia. The story goes; Poseidon and Athena compete in creating the best productive land for Athens. Poseidon slams his picthfork into the earth and salty water springs, Athena plants an olive tree. The committee decides on the benefits of olive tree and Athena is elected as the guardian Godess of Athens. fl 100 yeas old olive tree grows between 5-10m. in height and blooms white flowers. The fruit is the olive which is collected half ripe for breakfast use. Ripe ones ore sent to factories for oil production, Ancient mills, used to grind olives, are Found through excavation. Olives contain vitamins and use of olive oil instead of butter is healthier.When two spoonfuls of uncooked olive oil is consumed, it is good for blocked gall bladder and constipation. Fine olive oil adds to the flavor of dishes as well as the salads.
Above text and pictures are from the book titled "Sultan's Table of the Turkish Cuisine".
You can purchase "Sultan's Table of the Turkish Cuisine" book and other Turkey related books from Explore Turkey Bookstore.