The broad area in front of the Theatre was the Commercial Agora of Ephesus. Completely surrounded by columns, this Agora contained three entrances, one from the Celsus Library, one from the front of the Theatre, and one from the Harbour. In the form of a square 110 metres on a side, the north side of the Agora is left open, while the remaining three sides are surrounded by a portico which contained shops. The eastern and southern sides of the Agora were two-storeyed, the second storey of the eastern side being constructed in the form of an enclosed Doric stoa.
Originally built in the Hellenistic Period, the Agora was reconstructed in the 3rd century during the reign of Caracalla (211-217 A.D.). At the centre of the Agora was a sundial and a water-clock. The centre of the square was faced in marble and contained statues of the philosophers, statesmen, and of scholars.